Monthly Archives: September 2012

DESIGNING A COMMUNICATION INTERVENTION USING RADIO AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN COMMUNICATING ANTI-CHOLERA RELATED INFORMATION TO RURAL DWELLERS IN IDI-IYA COMMUINTY IN ISEYIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OYO STATE

BY Musediq Aderemi BASORUN

INTRODUCTION

The poor living in rural communities are generally vulnerable to water borne diseases because of uneven coverage of projects providing clean drinking water and even worse provision of improved and safe sanitation.
Water and sanitation surveys conducted in Nigeria, have shown that a significant number of rural communities have only a limited or no access to reliable and safe drinking water supply. To meet their daily water needs, rural communities draw water from unprotected water sources. The Idi-Iya community of Oyo State faces the largest backlog in water and sanitation services in the country.

Cholera is spread by contaminated water and food. Sudden large outbreaks are usually caused by drinking contaminated water from unprotected sources (WHO, 2000). The communities most at risk from water-related diseases are those who are poor, those with poor or no sanitation services who are forced into bush toileting – often along the banks of rivers, and those who rely on untreated water directly from rivers for their drinking water and for washing purposes. The cholera bacterium therefore spreads by people drinking contaminated water.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Lack of access to basic water supply and sanitation facilities is one reason for most state in northern Nigeria suffering by far the highest infant mortality and water-related disease rates in all of Africa. 18 000 people in Nigeria die from diarrhea or dysentery every year It costs the country approximately billions of naira every year to treat and cope with the effects of water borne diseases (Rural Development Services Network, 2000). Even where there are community water supply projects there are problems encountered by poor families accessing the minimum water consumption (25 litres per person per day) set out in regulations.

In the rural areas individual consumption daily rarely reaches this level except where there are yard connections. Reasons for low or no clean drinking water consumption include issues of affordability at either the flat rate contribution or metered water supply, and an unwillingness to pay for communal standpipes (RSDN, 2000). This has now been partially alleviated by the provision of free basic water, but there are still continuing problems of other kinds in Idi-Iya Community which predominantly is occupied by farmers. Prominent among these problems is the problem of communicating of relevant information to prevent in the first instance, the outburst of cholera, prevention of its spread or provision of information that leads to a favourable attitude change among rural dwellers in the west particularly in the aforementioned are.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Cholera is a disease largely of absence of sanitation and is closely associated with deep impoverishment and poor service delivery. The bacteria is spread mainly by contaminated water and food, attaches to intestinal wall, multiplying to produce a poisonous chemical which prevents the body processing water. Up to 14 litres of diarrhea can be passed in one day and it can lead to death in 24 hours. The disease has caused terror to populations and in the 19th century has devastated first world cities where it has been described as ending in mort de chien, a dog’s death, in agonizing cramps, diarrhea, and exhausted death. It can be eradicated by fairly elementary public health measures such as provision of sanitation, clean drinking water and encouragement of hand washing. Reports of outbreaks to the WHO show that cholera, which was previously widespread in the former colonial regions generally is increasingly limited to the African continent.

Nigeria is one of the most developed states in Africa and the incidence of cholera was something of a surprise. In the post-apartheid period has given priority to the delivery of water and sanitation to rural areas, was subject to a substantial outbreak of cholera in the period 2000-2001. An outbreak in August 2000 in the northern part of Nigeria gave rise to more than 100 000 cases a year later and there were continuing outbreaks in this and other provinces. According to WHO statistics this was the biggest outbreak in Africa for that period, all in all, the Nigeria outbreak accounted for 80 percent of all cases worldwide in the reporting period (IRIN, 2002?). It was both significant continentally, internationally and in terms of its policy implications locally.

According to Bongi and David (2004.1), the question arises why Nigeria which has a high profile policy of water services delivery should suffer such a prolonged and widespread epidemic. The outbreak of cholera appeared to indicate a considerable gap between the promise of basic municipal service delivery and the reality of unsanitary social environments mostly in rural, but possibly more acutely in peri-urban areas and slums. It is evident that the disease is closely associated with deep levels of poverty where people are vulnerable to lack of publicly provided sanitation. In the inception of the epidemic debate focused on impediments to public access to clean drinking water through rigorous cost recovery measures in the northern areas. As the epidemic advanced the relationship between poverty, backlogs in water and sanitation provision and health conditions was very actively debated. Was cholera the result of a low level of service delivery or precipitated by the emphasis on cost recovery and payment for water services?

The second question relates to the extent and persistence of the epidemic which pointed to problems with the public health messages and interventions led by the Department of Health and supported by other departments, the military and local agencies. Questions have been asked about the effect of the messages being communicated. To what extent were the messages put over in print, radio and television effectively communicated and having the result envisaged? It is not clear whether the health messages and campaigns have had the desired result. During and following the epidemic there was a particular focus on ‘anti-cholera’ strategies in accelerated water and sanitation delivery and were these measures sustained?

Two questions arise from these phenomena: why were the public health messages relatively ineffective in stemming the tide of the epidemic and what were the problems encountered in securing effective departmental coordination. The effectiveness of messages on sanitation and hand-washing is assessed in the schools which as the one state controlled and directed institution in the rural areas should operate as models of hygienic practice. It was found there were poor standards of sanitation and no facilities for hand washing.

There were no radio jingles relating to the cholera epidemic or hygiene practice in the classrooms and it was unclear the extent to which hygiene and water and sanitation featured in the curriculum. In short the schools practice showed that the departments of education, health and water affairs were ineffective in getting messages to the youth and ensuring they were reinforced.

The public health intervention was founded and managed on the basis of an emergency strategy which, for the first time in Nigeria history, employed the Disaster Management Act of 2002 for a health problem. Emergency strategy lead to concentrated focus on anti-cholera coordinated activities and succeeded finally in bringing the epidemic under control (although not its elimination). It did, however, raise issues in relation to its relationship to the longer term social question of service delivery and responsible government.

POTENTIAL OF RADIO IN COMMUNICATING DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES

According to Moemeka (1981.27), the media, especially radio, can not only reach people and areas otherwise inaccessible, but also serve as a direct instrument of education. He say they are agents of social change because they help in the county’s transition to new practices, which to him, in turn, leads to changes in attitudes, beliefs and skills, without which there can be no substantial community development.

Moemeka, in his work, Local Radio: Community Education for Development: Alternative Approach emphasizes the importance of radio in development by citing the media approach to community education as experimented in Ghana’s Rural Broadcasting Unit- Radio Rural Forums, Tanzania’s civic education through radio study groups, Senegal’s Radio Education Rurale and Colombia’s Accion Cultural Popular. Describing them as successful, he posits that they have shown that the mass media can to a large extent, offset many of the disadvantages of the face-to-face approach while making the best use of its advantages.

The media approach to Moemeka, has enabled the literacy to be crossed, and distance to be eliminated, it has made the services of the few experts available to everyone, for through the media one teacher can teach everyone. According to him, it has also helped to remove the problem of ‘dragging’ people out of homes and familiar surroundings to attend classes. The believe here is that if radio with its numerous potentials can be used to achieve the feat in he aforementioned countries it can do more in Nigeria if effectively put into use.

THEORETICAL FRAME-WORK

The theoretical frame-work for this is based on Two-Step-Flow Theory of the media. The theory postulated by Lazersfeld and Merton (1948), cited in Folarin (1981), posit that ideas often flow from the mass media (radio, television or newspaper) to the opinion leaders in society who then pass this information via interpersonal channels to their followers- or the less active sections of the population. According to Kartz (1960), individuals are not social isolates but they belong to groups that interact with other people.

The implication of this in development communication delivery is that the potentials of group dynamics among rural dwellers remain a viable option for effective information dissemination in rural development process.

The theory states that the first step in the flow consists of active information seekers who are generally well-educated, have access to media resources, are influential on others and act as sources of guide to others. Therefore, the paradigm of innovation-diffusion in rural community requires the services of opinion leaders. Since they play an active role in adoption process, they need full integration into the information exchange network of development programmes. They are well-informed people. They pass their information to others in the second stage through informal or interpersonal means.

Therefore, personal influence becomes an in-built process intervening between the media’s direct message and the audience’s ultimate reaction to media messages. As every other communities, Idi-Iya also has some that could be referred to as opinion leaders whose influence could determine the success of any media messages such that has been received by the people thus, if the messages are favourable to the leaders, they tend to spread the information among the less informed who are looking up to their approval of any intending actions. If it is contrary, then, the message may not achieve the purpose the communicator expects of it.

INTERVENTION PROGRAMME

Strategy for intervention

The strategy for intervention employs advocacy to raise resources and political and social leadership commitment for developmental goal; social mobilization for wider participation and ownership; and programme communication for bringing about changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices among specific participants in programs. These are the three main strategies in communication for development which is crucial for social transformation. This may as well be regarded as participatory development.

Advocacy and Communication

Mobilizing the communities, local, regional and national as well as political and religious leaders to play an active role in cholera control and ensuring proper understanding of the core interventions by the population and promoting positive change of behaviours is the major purpose of advocacy and communication as part of the cholera control strategy. Here, the stakeholders opinion leaders, the community people, the donors and the communication experts are brought together to debate and dialog on issues of development that bothers the development partners this affords every partners the opportunity of being involved in the developmental process. This process creates opportunity for a two-way communication between the partners.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this work is:
To design a communication intervention programme that is aimed at creating a favourable atmosphere for a positive change of attitude towards preventing and eliminating the deadly effects of cholera in Idi-Iya community of Oyo State.
THE INTERVENTION APPROACH

The ‘Besette Approach’ was employed in the designing of the intervention. According to Arokoyo (2011), the Besette step is a regular development plan and it is a participatory approach used for various development interventions.

METHODOLOGY

Efforts were built on the existing structures such as the Ward and Community Development Committees to engage communities and families in playing an active role in cholera prevention as well as to increase correct treatment behaviours.

CHALLENGES

In spite of Nigeria’s considerable resources and its leading role in uniting the African community for cholera control, the commitment of the political leadership in this community is still insufficient and something urgent need to be done to rescue the situation.

ADVOCACY AND PARTICIPATION

Activities:

Community Entry

Advocating among State Governors, parliamentarians, politicians, religious and traditional leaders for a better understanding of as well as more financial and organizational support for cholera control will be the main strategy and will utilize up-to-date information provided by the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) unit of NMCP as well as professional communication strategies. Empowering the communities and thereby ensuring broad participation of the grass root level of society was the second strategic focus in this area.

• At the entry point, the opinion leaders in the community where met who in turn lead the programme experts to the Mai-Angwa, the politicians, the youth leaders, women leaders and other community members. The compound of the Mai-Angwa was used for the debate which lasted for several hours.
• The problems were debated on with the programme team leader serving as the moderator. Everybody was given equal opportunity for participation; useful contributions were recorded here as everyone was free to express him or herself. Dialog ensued after the issue was debated to the satisfaction of every partner. The discussion was participatory enough because it employed a two-ways communication process.
• The key points from the result of the discussion were integrated in the education agenda which was used to teach the participants on how to prevent the outburst of cholera in the community as well as to control its spread in the future.
• The teaching programme was recorded having taken permission from the development partners.
• A short drama on the health implication of cholera and the reason why it has to be prevented at all cost was staged. This was informative, educating as well as entertaining, it was also recorded.
• After this, the other stakeholders, the Local Government Chairman, CBO, NGOs and others whose interest are presumed crucial for the success of the programme were met to discuss finance and other logistics capable of making the programme to see the light of the day.
• The recorded lecture and drama are now to be used as part of the materials to be used to design radio programmes which shall be aired on the local radio station (AmuludunFM) at appointed time this will be used to reinforce the lesson learnt during the programme. The reason for this is to ensure that no part of the lecture is forgotten by the people, and it will also enhance programme exit.

Project Time Frame

This project is expected to be completed within 3months of commencement all things being equal.

Assumption

It is assumed that at the end of this intervention programme, there would have being a great change in attitude of the people towards a favourable behavior to prevention of the endemic disease called cholera as every member of the community would have imbibe a new culture different from what obtains before the intervention.

Programme Communication for Behavioural Change

Recognizing the importance of the understanding and acceptance of the core interventions by the population and based on the past positive experiences in Nigeria, a nation-wide professionally designed campaign will be under taken using the established communication channel and strategies and using radio advertisement placement for dissemination of information of health facilities, the use of community radio drama performances as well as high profile annual events such as Africa Cholera Day that brought national visibility to cholera control efforts.
Preliminary assessment has been done regarding the current knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of community members in regards to cholera prevention and control and this will further be informed by planned operational research.

EXIT

The programme was adduced to be successful and handed over to the community for sustainability and ownership.

CONCLUSION

At this juncture, this work concludes that cholera is a killer disease, but can be prevented through inculcation of simple sanitary measures which were often being taken for granted by most people especially the rural dwellers. But with proper education through participatory communication intervention, this people too can be encouraged to change their attitudes for better health living.

RECOMMENDATION

Based on these findings, the study recommends that:

– Government “should take its hands off radio” and a truly public service system should be put in place, funded partially by a fraction of the Petroleum Trust Development Fund (PTDF) and the Education Tax Fund (ETF);

– The second suggestion is that government should stop vacillating over the establishment of community radio, as the study shows that radio stations are alienated from the community and from listeners;

– Third, development planning and practice in Nigeria should be integrated, and there is a need to ensure that the tasks that radio is encouraging people to perform in its jingles and programmes are feasibly supported by existing infrastructure;
– The fifth step would be for government to support private stations in order for them to more effectively participate in development communication;

– Finally, the work suggests that Nigerian communication schools and colleges review their curricula to include topics on public journalism, also known as civic or citizen journalism. It says that public journalism seeks to put the citizens at the centre of news and reports. According to the study, if radio is to perform public service and engage development effectively, “we need producers and presenters who are citizen-conscious and citizen-loyal.”

REFERENCES:

Bongi, D., and David, H. (2004). Water Service and Public Health: the 2000-01 Cholera outbreaks in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Being a paper presented at the 8th World Congress on Federal Environmental Healthin Durban; South Africa.

Folarin, B. (1981). Theories of Mass Communication, Ibadan; Stirling-Horden Publishers
Ltd.

Ministry of Health (2009). National Malaria Control Programme: Strategic Plan
2009-2013; Abuja; Nigeria.

Moemeka, A.A. (1981). Local Radio: Community Education for Development, Zaria; Ahmadu Bello University Press.

WHO. (2003). The Abuja Declaration and the Plan of Action. Geneva:World Health
Organization.

Samb, B. et. al. (2009). An assessment of interactions between global health initiatives and
country health systems, Lancet.

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MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE SYRIAN CRISES

Reports of the Syrian crises has been influenced by how the media view the conflict. One can confidently say that media coverage of the crises had been influenced by whose side media are: the regime or the rebels? Media based in countries where there is support for the regime in Syria give more air time to the activities of government forces and portray the rebels as a bunch of criminals who are bent on destabilizing Syria and the Middle East. Take for example the satellite television news channel, Press TV based in Iran. Its coverage of the crises had certainly being one sided. The channel certainly supports the regime in Syria.
The media in the West is not also without bias. Without doubt, they certainly give more airtime to the activities of the rebels in Syria.
The question now is, is objectivity dead in the media? is objectivity now subjective? Who or what decides what is objectivity in news coverage?
The truth is that objectivity is a relative term and the interests of the media determine what objectivity should be or is at any given time.

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY

BY AFOLAYAN EMMANUEL AYODELE

INTRODUCTION

Have you ever wondered why you are using cell phone (GSM)? Why do you think computer is now an indispensable commodity? Why the rush for face-book account, yahoo account and other internet account? The study of diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory will help in giving answers to these questions.
Anaeto, Onabajo and Osifeso (2008) see DOI as how new ideas and discoveries spread to members of social system. It shows that there must be something new (innovation/information spread through communication channels to a particular society. When there is a new idea, Bittner (2003) asserts that it is the media that presents information that makes us aware of the existence of the new innovation.

According to Kaze (2005), the following are the principles of DOI theory:
(i) Diffusion research centres on the conditions which increase or decrease the likelihood that a new idea , product, or practice will be adopted or not.
(ii) DOI theory predicts that media as well as interpersonal contacts provide information and influence opinion and judgment.
(iii) Opinion leaders exert influence on audience behaviour via their personal contact, but additional intermediaries (called change agents and gate keepers) are also included in the process of diffusion.
(iv) The information flows through network; the nature of networks and the roles opinion leaders play determine the likelihood that the innovation will be adopted.

EVOLUTION OF DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY
In 1962, Everest Rogers combined information flow research findings with studies about the flow of information and personal influence in several fields, including anthropology, sociology, and rural agricultural extension work.
He developed what he called diffusion theory, an extension of Paul Lazarsfield’s original idea of the two step flow. Roger’s effort at integrating information research with diffusion theory was so successful that information theory became known as information diffusion theory and when it is applied to something other than information, i.e technology; it is called diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory.
Prior to this, B. Ryan and N. Gross had already done a research that span for 20 years on Iowa farmers. The information on the new ideas was released in 1928 and the following took place in 1943 as cited by Anaeto et al (2008):
• 259 farmers were interviewed to ascertain how they adopted hybrid seed corn and to obtain information about them and their farm operations.
• The rate of adoption was plotted over time.
• Farmers were assigned to adopt categories based on time of adoption of the new seed corn.
• Various communication channels were responsible in decision making process.
The adoption of this innovation resulted in agricultural innovations that span for more than 20 years and a revolution in farm productivity. Rogers used part of this in his own research. He assembled data from numerous empirical studies to show that when new technologies are introduced, they passed through a series of stages before being wildly adopted.
First, most people become aware of them, often through information from the mass media. Second, the innovation will be adopted by a very small group of innovators or early adopters. Third, opinion leaders learn from the early adopters and try the innovations. Fourth, if opinion leaders find the innovations useful, they encourage their friends – the opinion followers. Finally, after most people have adopted the innovation, a group of the laggards makes the change.

PROCESSES OF DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY
Rogers (1995) looks at the process of this theory as a mental process that an individual passes through before adopting or rejecting an innovation. Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch (1974) affirm that for a new idea to diffuse there must be awareness stage, interest stage, evaluation stage, trial and adoption stage. For proper understanding, Rogers amended these stages and came out with his own processes which are: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation stage.
(i) Knowledge – It simply refers to exposure to the new idea, having understanding of it and how it works. According to Bittner (2003), it is the media that presents information that makes us aware of the existence of an item. During this stage, the individual has not been inspired to find more information about the innovation.
(ii) Persuasion – This has to do with one’s attitude towards the innovation. In this stage, the individual is interested in the innovation and actively seeks informations/details about the innovation (Rogers, 1995).
(iii) Decision – Whether to accept or reject an innovation is at this stage. It is the choice that an individual makes after thinking and talking about what is the best thing to do. No wonder Rogers (1964) has this to say:
In this stage the individual takes the concept of the change and weighs the advantages of using the innovation and decides whether to adopt or reject the innovation. Due to the individualistic of this stage, it is the most difficult stage to acquire empirical evidence.
(iii) Implementation Stage – This is the stage where a would-be adopter decides to give the new idea a trial. Rogers (1964) further asserts that the individual employs the innovation to a varying degree depending on the situation. The individual then determines the usefulness of the innovation and may search for further information about it.
(iv) Confirmation Stage – An individual decides to accept or reject the innovation at this stage. The individual finalizes his decision to continue using the innovation and may use the innovation to its fullest potential.

RATES OF ADOPTION
The rate of adoption is the relative speed with which members of a social system adopt an innovation. It is usually measured by the length of time required for a certain percentage of the members of a social system to adopt an innovation (Rogers, 1962). The rates of adoption are determined by an adopters’ category. In general, individual who first adopts an innovation requires a short adoption period (adoption process) than late adopters. Within the rate of adoption, there is a point an innovation reaches critical mass. This a point in time within curve that enough individuals have adopted an innovation in order that the continued adoption of the innovation is self sustaining.

In describing how an innovation reaches critical mass , Rogers outlines several stategies which are: Have an innovation adopted by a highly respected individual within a social network creating an institive desire for a specific innovation; Inject an innovaion into a group of individuals who would readily use an innovation, and provide positive reations and benefits for early adopters of an innovation.
Rogers also give five factors that could increase the chance of an innovation being quickly adopted. One, the innovation must have relative advantage over the existing ones. Two, it must be compatible with existing values, past experiences, and needs. Three, it must not be complex i.e difficult to understand and use. Four, it must be tri-able, the degree to which it can be experimented with on a limited basis. Six ,it must be able to yield positive results.

CATEGORIES OF ADOPTERS
Rogers (1962) defines an adopter category as a classification of individuals within a social system on the basis of innovativeness. In his book, Diffusion of Innovations, Rogers suggests a total of five adopters: Innovators, Early adopters, Early majority, Late majority, and Laggards.
(i) Innovators – Innovators are the first individuals to adopt an innovation. They are willing to take risk, youngest in age, have the highest social class, have great financial lucidity, very social, and have close contact to scientific sources and interaction with other innovators. Risk tolerance has them adoping tecnologies which may fail. Financial resources absorb these failures (Rogers, 1962). They absorb innovation quickly because they can absorb risk and when the innoation fails, they can bear the burden because of their financial status.
(ii) Early adopters – This is the second fastest category who adopt an innovation. These individuals have the highest degree of opinion leadership among the other categories. They are typicaly younger in age, have a higher social status, have more financial lucidity and advanced education, and are more socially forward than the other three categories. They also have the ability to absorb risk and financial lucidity to withstand any eventualty.
(iii) Early majority – Individuals in this category adopt an innovation after a varying degree of time. This type of adoption is signicantly longer than the innovators and early adopters. They tend to be slower in the adoption process, have above average social status, have limited contact with ealy adopters and seldom hold positions of opinion leadership in a system. They have less tolerance to risk because their financial resources is not as bouyant as the above two categories.
(iv) Late majority – Individuals in this category will adopt an innovation after the average member of the society. They approach an innovation with a high degree of skepticim and after the majority of society has adopted the innovation. They have below average social status, very little financial lucidity, and very little opinion leadership. They have no risk tolerance and always give irelevant reasons for not adopting an innovation.
(v) Laggards – Individuals in this category are the last to adopt an innovation. Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals here show little or no opinion leadership. They have an aversion to change agents and tend to be advanced in age. An average laggard tend to be focused on traditions, likely to have lowest social status, lowest financial lucidity, be oldest of all other adopters and in contact with only family and close friends. They are stragglers and have shilly shally altitude.

RELEVANCE OF DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY IN THIS CONTEMPORARY WORLD
DOI theory has relevance in this present age and will not likely lose its relevance thousand years to come. This is because new innovations/ideas are daily occurrence and off course will continually be diffused so that people can adopt them.
Take for example, the issue of GSM; it was viewed with skepticism at its introduction. The media was the first to swing to action. Most print media wrote a lot of features on how it will be like when this telecommunications start operation. Innovators and early adopters quickly grasp the opportunity when the operation started. They in turn encourage the opinion leaders and change agents who saw to it that the innovation reaches the early and late adopters and finally before all and sundry adopted the innovation.
Another instance of the relevance of this theory in the present day was how information on polio vaccine was diffused in the country. Citizens especially in the northern part of the country viewed polio vaccine with skepticism. The mass media swung into action by debasing the notion that polio vaccine reduces the fertility input among children.
After the mass media inform the public on the merits of the idea, the innovators and the early adopters (in this case the Sultan and top Emirs who doubled as opinion leaders and change agents) adopt the idea and canvas for polio vaccination to their subjects. The word of the Sultan really brought about drastic adoption of the innovation over time. It should also be noted that the use of herbal medicine is now undergoing processes and in no time, herbal products would become acceptable generally in the country.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE THEORY
The strength of a theory shows the positive value of the theory. DOI theory has the following strengths:
The ability of Rogers to review thousand of studies is a plus to the theory. Rogers successfully integrates a vast amount of empirical research; no wonder, the theory is still relevant in the present day situation. DOI represents important advancement over earlier limited effects theory. It drew from existing empirical generalizations and synthesized them into a coherent, insightful perspective. It was consistent with most findings from effects surveys and persuasion experiments, and above all, it is very practical. It laid the foundation for numerous promotional communication and marketing theories and the campaigns they support even till today.
The theory also provides practical guide for information campaigns in the United State and other places. The United State Agency for International Development (UNSAID) used its strategy to spread agricultural innovations in the third world (Anaeto, 2008).
During the cold world of the 1950s and 1960s, the United State competed against the USSR for influence in the developing nations. The hope was that by leading a green revolution and helping them better feed themselves, the US needed to convince peasants and rural villagers to adopt a large number of new agricultural innovations as quickly as possible. Rogers’ information/diffusion theory became a manual for the effort.
Despite the explained strength of this theory, the weaknesses go a long way in reducing the power of the theory.
One of such is that DIO theory is linear and source dominated because it sees communication process from the point of view of elite who has decided to diffuse information or an innovation.
This theory also underestimates the power of media. They mainly create awareness of the new innovations. It assigns a very central role to different types of people critical to the diffusion process. The theory simply says that the media influence innovators or early adopters who influence opinion leaders who in turn influence everyone else. Rogers failed to realize that the media can also be used to provide a basis for group discussions led by change agents.
Another fall out of this theory is that it stimulates adoption by groups that do not want the innovation. To illustrate this, a campaign to get Georgia farm wives to use can vegetables was initially judged a great success until it was found that very few women were using the vegetables. Most did not know the recipes for cooking canned vegetables, and those who tried found out that family members didn’t like the taste.
This sort of experience was duplicated around the world, Stanley( nd.) reveals that corn was grown in Mexico and rice in South Asia that no one wanted to eat; farmers in India destroyed their crops by using too much fertilizer; farmers adopted complex new machinery only to have it break down and stand idle after change agents left.
The researcher’s state of origin (Kwara) also witnesses this experience. The former governor of the state, Bukola Saraki brought in some white Zimbabwean farmers to help cultivate rice in abundance and also produce milk through the Zimbabwean cows that were also brought in.
Shonghai milk (as the milk from this farm is always called) was initially tagged a success as people mounted the stickers of the product on their vehicles, doors etc. It was later discovered that the residents of Kwara prefer taking peak milk and the like to Shonghai milk. The same thing applicable to Shonghai rice, mere top-down diffusion innovations didn’t guarantee long-term success.

A CRITIQUE OF DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION
In the adopters’ categories of this theory, it is noted that the category of a set of adopters is omitted. Rogers didn’t realize that some adopters may have the features of innovators/early adopters but may not quickly adopt an innovation.
For example, a lady may not adopt a new innovation that has to do with jewries, not because she is a laggard but because of a belief about jewelries probably because of religion. The researcher is of the opinion that an adopter may be young, venturesome, financially okay (these are some of the features of early adopters/innovator), and yet delay in adopting an innovation. Rogers never care about this category; as such no name was given.
After serious academic discourse with a fellow researcher, Victor Babatunde (Personal Communication, December 12, 2011), the researcher concluded that zero tolerance should be incorporated into the adopters’ categories. This will take care of people who are innovators in feature but may not readily adopt some new innovations/inventions

CONCLUSION
It is of importance to give more credence to the effort of mass media in every new idea or innovation. DOI theory has given too much power to opinion leaders and change agents and believes that they are responsible for the adoption of late majority, late adopters, and laggards.
At the persuasion stage where an individual seeks for more information about the new idea/innovation, the mass media role in this aspect of information need not to be down played.
The mass media also have a role to play when the process is at the decision stage. The continuous exposure to media content as related to the new idea/innovation would go a long way in convincing an individual to confirm and adopt the innovation.

Syria on the brink

The crises in Syria leaves one with a distasteful outlook at how the the world deals with crises affecting nations. One would think that by now the world would have found a solution to the rounds of deaths and destructions in Syria. Now the world seems to be a playing the roles of by -standers as the crises get more and more of hand. I blame Russia and China for the situation Syria has found her self in at the moment. These countries do not care whether more innocent Syrians die from the shellings and bombings by president of Syria against his own people, they are more interested in protecting their own interests in Syria.
Should a leader of any country in the world of today claim to be born to rule and that himself and his family have natural rights to sit over over a country and decide who lives and who dies? if the people of Syria have agiated both through peaceful demostrations and recently through violence that they no longer wish to be ruled by the current dictator, i think the world should respect their feelings and honor that .
It is a shame that such numbers of lives are being lost everyday and the world sits and watch. I wonder when the countless meetings being held over Syria would offer serious results?