Working for a horrible boss is in itself a difficult situation. You are bound to have your life made miserable when you work for one. It is best to quit such a job. But if you can’t for now because you need the job to get by your bills, then follow these tips to make it through the job.

• Take time to study your boss

Understanding the personality of your boss will enable you handle your boss better. These include knowing his/her likes and donts when it comes to his/her expectations from you on the job. To achieve this, plug into your experiences about his/her reactions to previous tasks/responsibilities assigned to you. Talk to older colleagues in the organization so as to be better educated concerning your boss’s expectations from the job.

• Don’t expect your boss’s compliments for job well-done

Horrible bosses hardly compliment their staff for day to day dedication and commitment to the job. They act like do not notice efforts made by staff on the job but would not fail to point out staff mistakes and are likely to verbally or physically abuse staff. Build a mind set of not expecting much in terms of compliments or rewards from such bosses. In the end, if he/she surprises you with one, thank him or her.

• Make plans on how to move to another job

Though personal or certain challenges might make it unwise to quit the job for now, there is need to make plans on how to conveniently quit such a job in the long run. To achieve this, you have to be on the look out for openings in other organizations. Think about starting your own business or upgrade your qualifications to be more employable or be fit for other jobs. You cannot continue to work with or for a horrible boss for ever. You will surely be emotionally and psychologically drained out in the end. Your dissatisfaction with the job will know no end.

• Avoid your boss as much as possible

If you are in a job position that allows you to have less direct contact with such boss, better for you. But if not, this will not help you. Nevertheless, always think through every detail of an assignment before you go to meet with your boss for a meeting. If it is a responsibility that you can handle personally without contacting your boss, then avoid him/her, take a decision and go ahead and do it. Experience about his/her expectations from you on such an assignment may be of help to guiding you on how to go about the assignment as well.

• Keep your frustrations to yourself

Employees with horrible bosses often feel a need to voice their frustrations to fellow colleagues. Be careful, some of your fellow colleagues could be informants for your boss. You could end up being singled out for more abuse when the gossips get to your boss. If you must share your job frustrations, do it with trusted colleagues or better still, family members.

• Toughen-up yourself emotionally

One of the joys of horrible bosses is to break the spirit of an employee. These include verbally or physically abusing you or leaving you in tears or saddened most of the time. Work on your mind to resist every verbal assault thrown at you from stealing your peace and joy. If not, you could become ‘the mother/father of tears’ in the organization. Keep your distance with such your boss when he or she is displeased with you over an assignment; for some of these horrible bosses don’t waste time in slapping their staff across the face. So keep a distance to ensure their hands do not reach you.

• Save for rainy days

Job expectancy when working in an organization with a horrible boss is sadly short. You can be sent packing from the job when you least expect. Most times even good job performances may not guarantee long years of service for you with such organization. Therefore, there is need for you to save part of your income on the job. When the expected happens too soon, you can have something to fall back on to get by till you are able to get another job or start up something.

• Stand up to your boss at times

Nobody likes to take the blame when things go wrongs. This is true for horrible bosses. They often prefer others to take the fall for their poor judgments. They would not hesitate to hang others when things to wrong even when they are responsible for such problems in the first place. Resist being made the scapegoat especially when you can prove that you were not the cause or responsible for the problem in the first. They wouldn’t hesitate to shout at you or shut you up when you seek exonerate yourself from the blame; stand your ground and refuse to be intimidated by their reactions. But if you are to blame for the problem, apologize and then keep mute while h/she does the shouting and accusations till he/she gets tired, then you can quietly leave his/her presence.

When is a house too old?

We shall continue to sleep in thee until you sleep on us. That is the fate of a poor man.

Nigerian Government response to Protest

often times I can help but worry about the state of personal freedom in Nigeria with regards to the right to protest and the right to disagree with the establishment. The issue of continuous crackdown on protesters such as Biafra supporters and the Shite followers are two examples that have appeared in recent times in Nigeria. When government fails to dialogue with protesters on issue that affect them but rather employ the use of naked force to deal with such protests, no doubt government is inadvertently fueling such protests which of course could degenerate to violence.
The use of the military to crackdown on peaceful protest is undemocratic and should not be resorted to by the Nigerian government. The military is not trained for civil matters.
Most of the accusations of poor human right records against the Nigerian military were recorded in their dealing with civilians right within the territory of Nigeria, civilians, who they were supposed to protect in the first place. If these poor records are anything to go by, it makes a case why the military should not be allowed to interfere in civilian affairs particularly when human rights ought to be fully respected.

The government should cultivate an atmosphere for civil discourse on issues that affect any segment of its citizens. It should discourage the mentality in Nigeria that for one to get government to listen to one’s discontents, one should resort to violence such as youths in Niger Delta are currently doing. This is the mentality that the Nigerian government had entrenched in Nigerians through it many responses to protests of discontent on many issues over the years.Dialogue should be the first and last resort

World Press Freedom Day

2016 Theme: Access to Information and Fundamental Freedoms – This Is Your Right!

“On this World Press Freedom Day, I urge all Governments, politicians, businesses and citizens to commit to nurturing and protecting an independent, free media. Without this fundamental right, people are less free and less empowered. With it, we can work together for a world of dignity and opportunity for all.”
– Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon

Freedom of Information as Fundamental Freedom and Human Right

Freedom of information can be generally defined as the right to access information held by public bodies.
As it is explained in the UNESCO publication Freedom of Connection, Freedom of Expression (2011): “In so far as freedom of expression is deemed to be one of the fundamental civil rights supporting democratic processes, freedom of information is required in order to ensure that citizens can vote in an informed way, and that they can hold their governments accountable through public scrutiny.”

Furthermore, in the UN Human Rights Committee’s General Comment 34 on Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the connections between imparting expression and access to information is strongly linked to the right for the citizens to take part in public affairs. Journalism has a major role to play in this regard. The right to information is linked to wider transparency in society, as highlighted in the 2015 UNESCO study ‘Keystones to foster inclusive Knowledge Societies: Access to information and knowledge, Freedom of Expression, Privacy, and Ethics on a Global Internet’, mandated by the UNESCO Member States.

The study further underscores the importance of user empowerment to deal with information and communications, such as through Media and Information Literacy. Again, journalism is central to all these aspects. A major obstacle to open access to information is overreach in governmental secrecy. States should be able to keep some information confidential in line with legitimate purposes and processes set out in international human rights laws. However, information from administrative and executive authorities, concerning for example laws and public expenditure, should generally be accessible to everyone. Hence, freedom of information both helps provide oversight over governmental bodies, as well as the possibility to hold them accountable, and this right strengthens the relevance of press freedom and independent journalism.

Since the adoption of the world’s first freedom of information law in modern-day Sweden and Finland in 1766, more than 90 other countries have adopted such provisions. However, there are issues such as whether exceptions are narrowly tailored; whether there is protection for whistle-blowers, and whether there is impact on relevant information held by private entities. Implementation of freedom of information raises issues such as whether the laws are well-known, in terms of high public awareness; whether requests are administered efficiently and whether there are high fees for the requester; and whether information is published by own initiative or released upon request.

Another issue is that even in countries where there are freedom of information laws or legal provisions, journalists may have difficulty in accessing, understanding, and subsequently using the raw data or information. This is where data journalism can play a role in accessing and interrogating data and mashing up data sets to produce results that inform audiences “something new about the news”. Differential access to information along gender lines as well as the gender-disaggregation of information, are additional key issues.

When journalists are empowered to use freedom of information laws to bring hidden information to light, they can amplify their potential to enhance the accountability of institutions as part of the SDG conception of sustainable development. Proactive steps by states to open up records can also greatly help to ensure transparency in public administration.
In these ways, freedom of information is closely linked to a culture of openness and the idea of participatory democracy, both of which are key to sustainable development. It is also important to promote a broad range of cultural expressions in media, in order to develop media diversity and the inclusion of minority groups in the media landscape.

Protecting Press Freedom from Possible Censorship and surveillance Overreach

In the digital age, press freedom is confronted by growing challenges of arbitrarily blocking access to online information, limiting or punishing cyber-expression, and arbitrary intrusions on digital privacy. These developments impact on those who do journalism, on others who express themselves online, and also on those who receive online information indirectly through multi-step flows.
They may also unjustifiably limit the diversity of cultural expression, a principle enshrined in the 2005 UNESCO Convention on The Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. These phenomena curb both people’s access to information as well as the range of information and expression online. There are serious implications of the increasing number of measures which regulate
Internet content through blocking of web sites and of communications tools in ways that exceed international standards requiring legality, necessity, proportionality and legitimate purpose. These steps constrain the ability of a society to make informed choices about development and democracy, a priority for UNESCO in building the foundations for inclusive, knowledge societies. They may also represent a form of prior restraint, pre-emptively presuming an act of communication to be guilty of an offence rather than testing it in court after actual expression.

An inter-related issue is the challenge of possible surveillance overreaching. The right to privacy is well-established as a precondition for freedom of expression, and for the protection of journalists’ confidential sources. Privacy intersects also with anonymity, and with the use of encryption. An absence of these facilities can seriously inhibit the free flow of information, something that may have particular implications for people seeking to challenge gender inequality as well as for challenging expressions of advocacy for hatred on gender lines.
Where journalistic source protection is compromised, there may be cover-ups of corruption, intimidation and exposure of sources’ identities with repercussions on them. In the long term, this can contribute to sources of information running dry and to self-censorship in society at large.

In this regard, the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and Opinion has also assessed the issue through a 2015 report noting that in situations “where States impose unlawful censorship through filtering and other technologies, the use of encryption and anonymity may empower individuals to circumvent barriers and access information and ideas without the intrusion of authorities”. The report further calls on States to have national laws which recognize that individuals are free to protect the privacy of their digital communications by using encryption technology and tools that allow anonymity online.
The legal frameworks that protect the confidentiality of sources of journalism are essential to reporting information in the public interest. However, these frameworks are under significant strain in the digital age, and there is a need to revise and strengthen them – or introduce them where they do not exist. UNESCO, with the support of funding from Sweden, has commissioned research by the World Association of Newspapers (WAN-IFRA) which explore an 11-point assessment tool for consideration by Member States for pinpointing areas where source protection frameworks can be improved.


Press freedom and access to information are essential to democracy and to sustainable development. Journalism helps make this so. Sometimes referred to as a “watchdog” of political and societal institutions, journalism is also much more: it demonstrates freedom of expression for society at large, it puts new questions on the development agenda, and it empowers citizens with information.
It provides a context in which the diversity of cultural expressions can flourish. For all these reasons, strengthening the conditions for journalism is key to developing a culture of openness, access to information and fundamental freedoms. To this end, World Press Freedom Day 2016 seeks to advance the right to information, press freedom, and the environment for journalism to done in safety. It resonates with contemporary global issues and opportunities. In this way, around the world, it should be possible for stakeholders to continue to take the Day to an ever higher level of visibility, relevance, and impact.


My Dreams

Gone are the days I look unto my country for hope concerning my future. As days go by I am even frustrated about the terrible economic prospect that stare one in the face from a country that seems to offer nothing but pain to many. Will my dreams ever come true? I wish I could pursue them, but rather than pursue them, the challenges and struggle of daily living seem to get the best of my energies. Sometimes I remember what my dreams for my career or the future had been; I shake my head in pain that they are slipping by.
I feel so helpless now chasing them for problems of life that confront me have made my situation so. I many times wish that a grater force gives me the courage and change the difficult challenges that confront me and enable me get back to the path of my dreams. Now I understand why some say the grave yard is the richest place as many have died without fulfilling their great ideas or dreams due to difficulties of life particularly those posed by an inhuman nation like mine.
I know, for the living, there is hope, is just the many burdens on my shoulders that seem like continually weighing my dreams down, hurt me most. May God help me.

The Homosexuality Question in Nigeria




/* Style Definitions */
{mso-style-name:”Table Normal”;
mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;
mso-fareast-font-family:”Times New Roman”;

The recent signing into law of the anti gay bill by the Nigerian president continues to generate diverse reactions from both within and outside Nigeria. Although, many western countries and right groups had condemned the new law, the support that came to the president from many segments of the Nigeria shows that Nigerians indeed support the new law. While those in the west condemn the law from human rights perspective, many Nigerians view and support it from moral perspective.

It’s unfortunate that some African countries have been arm-twisted into accepting or permitting homosexuality within their domains by pressure brought to bear on them by western countries, donor agencies and rights groups.  The courage shown by the Nigerian president in signing the anti gay bill should be commended. No people or nation can survive without good moral conducts and civility. To achieve this, laws like the anti gay law are necessary. What homosexuality only hopes to achieve is destroying very important institutions that are necessary for the survival of the society such as family and marriage.

Of what benefit is homosexuality to society? Today in Nigeria, incidences of child abuse are on the increase. The gay syndrome has even worsened the situation. It’s not uncommon to get reports of gays abusing children more often these days since these gays do not have many gays in the population to have ‘sexual’ relationships with.

It’s unfortunate that in some of Nigeria’s educational institutions, many un-guided youths are being lured into homosexuality due to financial enticement and poverty.  Back then, homosexuality used to be presented as an act the individual did not have control over but only discovered to be one. Now it is a life style with people being lured into it.  The quick spread and destructive impact of the syndrome surely demands the new Nigerian anti gay law.

The international community should respect the decisions of Nigerians concerning the new law on homosexuality. No country has the right to dictate to Nigerians on how best they should live their lives. The new law is indeed compatible with the rights to freedom to Nigerians as enshrined in the Nigerian constitution. No personal freedom is worth upholding that threatens or negates the collective interest of the Nigerian people. Homosexuality should not be an exception.

May the bombs drop soon

A foreign military intervention in Syria is long over due considering the genocide being committed against the civilian population by the blood thirty president of Syria.  It is unfortunate that the world had stood by watching helpless civilians face deaths by their thousands for the past two years in Syria. It is also unfortunate that countries like Russia and China are opposing a military strike by the US in Syria. All they care about are their personal interests and not the sufferings of the ordinary Syrian people, many of whom are now refugees and victims of chemical attacks by the forces of president Assad.

A military strike by US will send a very clear message to the regime in Syria that it can not continue with its business of ‘death engineering’ and blatant atrocities against the civilian population as the regime had done with its chemical attacks against civilians recently. it will also guard against another blood thirsty leader in part of the world deploying such deadly chemicals against civilians. Let the world support efforts by the US at checking the danger that Assad poses to his people. 

The International Court and the accusations against it

– Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.
Martin Luther King, Jr.

I have wondered why African leaders accuse the International Court of Justice of being biased against Africans. They accuse  the court of  prosecuting mostly Africans than people of other races. While this may seem true considering the number of Africans that had ended up in the Court, however, i think it is the failure of the judicial systems in many African countries that had allowed the Court to step in and demand justice for victims of human right abuses in these countries. The political will of demanding justice for victims of war crime in many African countries is lacking. For example, in Kenya, despite the many opportunities given to the Kenyan judiciary to prosecute those behind the killings in the post election violence, the system failed in its responsibilities, forcing the International Court to step in and demand justice for families of victims.

Despite what some African leaders  say against the International Court, I think the court should be commended for the few prosecutions it had achieved in recent times. Besides,  those so far convicted by the court have been shown to bear responsibilities for the atrocities that they had committed, by the Court. By criticizing the Court, are these leaders indirectly asking the Court to look away from the atrocities against civilians on the African continent? Many African leaders are not true respecters of human rights, perhaps they fear that the court could come after them in future and this explains why they detest the International Court and accuse it of being anti-African.Could the African Union have ever demanded that the likes of Bosco, Charles and other perpetrators of genocides and abusers of human rights on the African continent be brought to book? There is need for The African Union to work to strength democratic institutions on the continent. They should rather, support the efforts of the International court, rather than strengthen current and future abusers of human right on the continent.

To accommodate the worries of African leaders, the International Court should also its stretch nets on other countries and persecute human right violators there. A case in point is Syria and the regime there. One can hear the daily cries for justice amongst victims of atrocities in that country; crimes committed by the United States army in Iraq should also be investigated. Where there is war, there are human right abuses. Human right is for all people and concentration of the efforts of the International Court should not dwell on the African continent alone. The International Court should also remember that it holds responsibilities to all peoples of the world. It should not allow the institution to be used by world powers, particularly western powers as tool to witch hunt other political leaders  or major players in other countries who have refused to do the bidding of some of the world powers. Politicizing the activities of the Court would in deed strengthen the impression amongst people that the Court is a political tool of oppression for some powerful counties.

‘Where justice is denied, where poverty is enforced, where ignorance prevails, and where any one class is made to feel that society is an organized conspiracy to oppress, rob and degrade them, neither persons nor property will be safe’- Frederick Douglass



It’s easy to get people’s attention, what counts is getting their interest- Philip Randolph
Communication, particularly verbal, occurs when one person speaks and another person listens. Health workers uses range of verbal communication skills to respond to questions, find out about an individual’s problems or needs, contribute to team meetings, break bad news, provide support to others and deal with problems and complaints. According to MDG-DRG Funded Midwives Service Scheme (2009), despite the intervention of international organisation, gaps still exist. These gaps range from infrastructure, access to services and human resource needs in many health facilities across Nigeria, there is shortage of skill attendants and this has been reported to impact negatively on utilization of services by women. Group communication refers to the communication that exists between two or more people. This type of communication can be used in health and social care, particularly to improve maternal health.

In group communication, women for instance are likely to open up to a social worker about issues if they are around people of similar situations. Different languages, cultures and psychological factors exist so not every social worker can understand verbally what their patients are complaining about in a typical group communication; therefore, effective communication and interaction play an important role in the work of all health and social care professionals. In doing this, health practitioners can employ range of communication and interaction skills in order to:

1. Work inclusively with people of different ages and diverse backgrounds.
2. Respond appropriately to the variety of care-related problems and individual needs of people who use care services.
3. Enable people to feel relaxed and secure enough to talk openly.
4. Ask sensitive and difficult questions, and obtain information about matters that might be very personal and sensitive.
5. Obtain clear, accurate information about a person’s problems, symptoms or concerns.
Group communication is essential in enabling the health practitioner to establish a good rapport with women before, during and after childbirth. Respect can also be shown to these women by paying careful attention to their complaints in a group as well as communicating to them in a language that they all understand. Doing this may result in effective interaction between the health worker and the group.


As part of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in order to reduce maternal mortality by three-fourths before 2015 and to achieve universal access to reproductive health, midwives were deployed to health facilities in rural communities to carryout community service aimed at facilitating reduction in maternal mortality. These midwives use various communication campaigns (like group communication, interpersonal communication and others) in carrying out this exercise in diverse communities within Nigeria. Yet, there is still low turnout of women in Niger state towards this communication campaign. Hence, maternal mortality remains an issue and women continue to encounter complications during childbirth at home. It is on this premise that this research was carried out empirically.

Group communication may be common in the health sectors because care professionals tend to work in teams and in partnership with patients. Hence, this study would be guided by the following objectives:

1. To determine the use of group communication in the campaign against maternal mortality in Niger state.

2. To ascertain how effective this campaign is used in creating awareness among the community women.

This study will be guided by the following research questions;

1. How has group communication been used as a campaign against maternal mortality in Niger state?
2. How effective is this campaign in creating awareness among rural women within the community?


One of the factors that prevent women from receiving or seeking care during pregnancy and childbirth is lack of information (WHO, 2012). Hence, Niger State women are not left out in this problem. There are low efforts in Niger state at curbing this societal menace. This study is geared towards suggesting ways through which group communication can be used to carry out this enlightenment among the rural women of Niger state.


Group communication

Group communication, according to Collins (2011), is seen as a process of giving, receiving, and interpreting information through verbal and non-verbal expression. Effective communication occurs in a group when the speaker speaks and the message is interpreted by the members of the group receiving the message in the manner that the speaker intended sending and receiving messages which often takes place simultaneously due to the dynamic process of verbal and non-verbal communication. Collins (2011) also said group communication is either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive may include clarifying goals and the sharing of ideas, experiences, and feelings. Group communication that is maladaptive may include seeking to control the group by controlling the channels of communication, and avoidance of specific issues or persons.

According to Wood (2003:274) a group must have, “three or more people who interact over time, depend on each other, and follow shared rules of conduct to reach a common goal”. Wilson (2002:14) defines a group as, “a collection of three or more individuals who interact about some common problem or interdependent goal and can exert mutual influence over one another”. He goes on to say that the three key components of a group are, “size, goal orientation, and mutual influence”. Interpersonal communication can also be aligned with group communication because individuals may communicate inter personally in pairs.

Organizational communication might be thought of as a group that is larger than 12 people.
Group communication follows slightly different ‘rules’ to communication in one-to-one situations and can be seen as an extension of interpersonal communication. This is because information shared through interpersonal communication can be spread by an individual to a group and then the process continues. According to Collins (2011:6), group communication deals with a number of different people trying to speak, get their point across and their voices heard.
In the context of communication, Collins listed a number of benefits groups can have for participants:

1. A group can be an effective way of sharing responsibilities
2. Groups can improve decision-making and problem-solving because they draw on the knowledge and skills of a number of people
3. Groups tend to command more respect and have more power than an individual acting alone.
Furthermore, Collins (2011) highlighted a number of ways that can undermine the effectiveness of group communication if:
1. The power in a group is held by a single person or is misused by a small clique of people to dominate others and pursue their own agenda.
2. Power struggles and battles break out within the group, resulting in a loss of purpose and effectiveness.
3. The group loses sight of its main goal or purpose, drifting into a pattern of ineffective activity that doesn’t have a real benefit or outcome (holding meetings for the sake of meetings, for example) and people find it hard to speak and contribute effectively or to challenge aspects of the group’s thinking or practices. This can lead to poorly thought-out and unquestioned decisions being made.
Characteristics of Groups

1. Interdependence. To Lewin (1951), Cragon & Wright (1999) and Harris & Sherblom (2008) and, groups cannot be defined as a number of people simply talking to each other or meeting together. Instead, a primary characteristic of groups is that members of a group are dependent on the others for the group to maintain its existence and achieve its goals. In essence, interdependence is the recognition by those in a group of their need for the others in the group. For example, the group communication campaign in Niger state is interdependent when members of a group for maternal health recognise their needs from the needs of other members.

2. Interaction. For a group to be functional there must be interaction. Since communication is done on daily basis, there should be something that distinguishes group communication from other forms of communication and which is the issue of interaction. Cragon and Wright (1999:7) states that “the primary defining characteristic of group interaction is that it is purposeful. Furthermore, they break down purposeful interaction into four types: problem solving, role playing, team building, and trust building”. This means that without purposeful interaction, a true group does not exist. Pregnant women, for example, may want to interact with her fellow pregnant women or a nursing mother within a group. They might start by wanting to exchange their numbers, contact address and other information that may help in keeping them in touch.

3. Synergy. One advantage of working in groups, according to Harris & Sherblom (2008) is that it allows them to accomplish things they wouldn’t be able to accomplish on their own. For example, the group communication campaign carried out in Niger state gives room for pregnant women to be checked thoroughly by the midwives (like the heartbeat, position of the baby, etc) which ordinarily they wouldn’t have been able to do on their own.

4. Common Goals. Having interaction and synergy may be pointless in groups without a common goal. People who comprise groups are brought together for a reason or a purpose. While most members of a group have individual goals, a group is largely defined by the common goals of the group. In reducing maternal mortality, the group communication campaign carried out in Niger state has a common goal of reducing maternal mortality among women in rural communities.

5. Shared Norms. Because people come together for a specific purpose, they develop shared norms to help them achieve their goals. Even with a goal in place, random interaction does not define a group. Group interaction is generally guided by norms a group has established for acceptable behavior. Norms are essentially expectations of the group members, established by the group. The group communication campaign carried out in Niger state for example, has a norm that ensures every women (pregnant and nursing mothers) to be in attendance around 9: am on daily basis for health talk on maternal health.

6. Cohesiveness. One way that members understand the idea of communicating in groups is when they experience a sense of cohesiveness with other members of the group. When members feel like they are part of something larger, it creates a sense of cohesion or wholeness. It is the sense of connection and participation that characterizes the interaction in a group as different from the defined interaction among loosely connected individuals. In other words, when there is interaction, then participation is likely to occur. The group communication campaign in Niger state for example, enables women to participate by asking questions and contributions in the discussion.

Types of Groups
Not all groups are the same or brought together for the same reasons. Bilhart and Galanes (1998) categorize groups on the basis of the reason they were formed and the human needs they serve.

1. Primary Groups. Primary groups are ones we form to help us realize our human needs like inclusion and affection. They are not generally formed to accomplish a task, but rather, to help members meet their fundamental needs as rational beings like acceptance, love, and affection. The group communication campaign in Niger state for example, enables women (pregnant women) to feel loved, affection and acceptance in the society mostly when they interact with their fellow pregnant women.

2. Secondary Groups. Secondary groups are formed to accomplish work, perform a task, solve problems, and make decisions. Bilhart & Galanes; Harris & Sherblom; Cragan & Wright; and Larson & LaFasto (1989) state that secondary groups have a specific performance objective or recognizable goal to be attained; and coordination of activity among the members of the team is required for attainment of the team goal or objective. Bilhart and Galanes divide secondary groups into four different types.

i. Activity Groups. Activity groups are ones that are formed for the purpose of participating in activities. For example, the group communication campaign in Niger state enables women to participate in activities like strolling and walking as a recommended exercise enlightened by the midwife or nurses.

ii. Personal Growth Groups. Personal growth groups are formed to come together to develop personal insights, overcome personal problems, and grow as individuals from the feedback and support of others (Bilhart & Galanes). For example, the group communication campaign in Niger state on maternal mortality enables pregnant women to come together and share as well as overcome the problems they encounter during the stages of their pregnancy.

iii. Learning Groups. Learning groups are concerned primarily with discovering and developing new ideas and ways of thinking (Harris & Sherblom). For example, the Primary Health Care (PHC) in Niger state organise a group communication campaign solely for the purpose of educating the women on what to do and what not to do with the sole aim of reducing maternal mortality.

iv. Problem-Solving Groups. These groups are created for the express purpose of solving a specific problem. The very nature of organizing people into this type of group is to get them to collectively figure out effective solutions to the problem they encounter. In this type of groups, women for example, are brought together to collectively proffer solutions on how to prevent maternal mortality amongst women as well as establishing ways of preventing them.

For the purpose of this study, the category of group that is applicable in Niger State is the secondary group which is basically formed to accomplish work, solve problems and make decisions. That is to say that this category of group is formed in order to tackle maternal mortality among women of Niger state.

Importance of Group communication
When groups of like-minded people came together with shared commitments and goals, change may likely occur. Groups are used for social movement. For Bowers and Ochs (1971), without a sufficient group, the actions of individual protestors are likely to be dismissed. Group communication helps to unite people. The communication that occurs through the collective action of singing songs or chanting slogans serves to unite group members. The key to group success is the sustained effort of group members working together through communication.

Group communication plays an important role in one’s cultural identity and membership in the communicative choices and how the communication of others is interpreted. People may want to examine membership and communication in groups because different cultures emphasize the role of individuals while other cultures emphasize the importance of the group. For example, collectivist cultures are ones that place high value on group work because they understand that outcomes of their communication impact all members of the community and the community as a whole, not just the individuals in the group.

On the other hand, individualistic cultures are ones that place high value on the individual person above the needs of the group. For example, the group communication campaign in Niger state has both collective and individualistic culture. Collective because the outcomes of their communication impact on all members of the community, particularly those the information is spread to and Individualistic because each woman may place her needs above the needs of the group.

Power influences how an individual interprets the messages of others and determines the extent to which the person has the right to speak up and voice out concerns and opinions to others. For example, the group communication campaign in Niger state, an individual may harbor the following thoughts: Are some people essentially more powerful than I am? Do I consider myself to be a powerful person? The word “power” in this instance could literary mean “to be able”.
According to Starhawk (1987), he divided power into power-over, power-from-within and power-with. Power-over enables one individual or group to make the decisions that affect others, and to enforce control. Control can take many forms in the society.

Starhawk explains that power is wielded from the workplace, in the schools, in the courts, in the doctor’s office. It may rule with weapons that are physical or by controlling the resources needed to live like; money, food, medical care or by controlling more delicate resources: information, approval, love. People maybe accustomed to power-over that they may become aware of its functioning only when they see its extreme manifestations. If for example, in the group communication campaign in Niger state, someone dominates the group, makes all the decisions or controls the resources of the group such as money or equipment, this is known as power-over.

Power-from-within manifests when a person can stand, walk, and speak. That is, words that convey a person’s needs and thoughts (Starhawk, 1987). In groups, this type of power arises from a person’s sense of connection, bonding with other human beings and with the environment. As Heider (1997) explains that since all creation is a whole, separateness is an illusion. Power-from-within comes through cooperation, independence through service, and a greater self through selflessness. The group communication campaign in Niger state for example, while on the field, the researcher closely observed a woman who angrily sprang up and left the group discussion; probably because she wasn’t benefitting from the discussion.

Finally, groups manifest power-with, which is the power of a strong individual in a group of equals, the power not to command, but to suggest and be listened to, to begin something and see it happen (Starhawk, 1987). For this to be effective in a group at least two qualities must be present among members: first, all group members must command respect and equality for one another, and secondly, the leader must not abuse power-with and attempt to turn it into power-over. For example, been in a group where members do not treat each others as equals or with respect is a good example of power-with.

Why groups are formed
Communication maybe seen as the central activity of every group depending on how the group is formed, organised and maintained. Individuals may have both positive and negative stories to tell about being in groups, but how they are formed is an essential aspect to be considered. Sometimes, people join a group because they want to and not necessarily because they have an objective to attain. Either way, Lumsden and Lumsden (1986) gave three reasons why groups are formed.

First, groups are formed because people want to share similar interests or attractions with other group members. In health care, groups that share similar interests or attractions are being formed. For example, groups that campaign against HIV/AIDS discrimination, maternal mortality and other health related issues are formed to share similar interests or attractions. These groups may share similar interest and attraction when it comes to touching and affecting people’s life.

A second reason a group is formed is called drive reduction. People may join groups so that their work with others may help them to fulfill their needs. As Maslow (1970) explains, people have drives for physiological needs, security, love, self-esteem, and self-actualization. Working with others may help in achieving these needs thereby reducing their obligation to meet these needs themselves. For example, using the group communication campaign in Niger state, an individual within a group may decide to carry out a campaign against women victimization, if she accomplishes the task successfully for the group, it’s likely her group members may compliment her work, thus fulfilling some of her self-esteem needs.

A third reason a group is formed is for reinforcement. We are often motivated to do things for the rewards they bring. Participating in groups provides reinforcement from others in the pursuit of goals and rewards. For example, a group of women may successfully carryout a campaign against maternal mortality and other prevailing health issues, the group may likely be rewarded by NGOs, government, international organisations as well as other operating organisations. By this, the group fulfills the purpose of reinforcement.

Group stages
Most groups go through series of stages as they come together. These stages as listed by Tuckman (1977); Fisher (1970) and Harris & Sherblom (2002) are called forming, storming, norming, and performing. Groups formed to achieve a task may go through a fifth stage called termination which may occur after a group accomplishes its goal.

1. Forming: For a group to exist and work together its members must first form the group. During the forming stage, group members begin to set the parameters of the group by establishing what characteristics identify the members of the group as a group. During this stage, the group’s goals are made generally clear to members, initial questions and concerns are addressed, and initial role assignments may develop. This is the stage when group norms begin to be negotiated and established. For example, when the group communication campaign in Niger state was at the forming stage, it started gradually with interpersonal communication approach, then some women became aware of the campaign and the benefits before the group began to form.

2. Storming: The storming stage maybe used to compare the “first fight” of a romantic couple. After the initial politeness passes in the forming stage, group members begin to feel more comfortable expressing their opinions about how the group should operate and the participation of other members in the group. Given the complexity of meeting both individual goals as well as group goals, there is constant negotiation among group members regarding participation and how a group should operate. For example, using the group communication campaign in Niger state, after the forming stage, there were controversies among the women as regards to the topics to be treated. This is the storming stage.

3. Norming: As soon as a group survives a first fight, they may emerge on the other side of the conflict feeling stronger and more cohesive. That is to say that if a group is able to work through the initial conflict of the storming stage, there is the opportunity to really solidify the group’s norms and get to the task at hand as a cohesive group. Norming signifies that the members of a group are willing to abide by group rules and values to achieve the group’s goals. For example, using the group communication campaign in Niger state, rules were set that every community woman (pregnant and nursing mothers) should be in attendance every day at around and no talk will be repeated if she misses out.

4. Performing: Performing is the stage associated with the defining characteristic of groups. This stage is marked by a decrease in tensions, less conscious attention to norm establishment, and greater focus on the actual work at hand in order to accomplish the group’s goals. While there still may be episodes of negotiating conflict and re-establishing norms, performing is about getting to the business at hand. For example, using the group communication campaign in Niger state, immediately the group ‘kicks off’ its activities, it means it is at the performing stage.

5. Terminating: Groups that are assigned a specific goal and timeline may experience the fifth stage of group formation which is termination. Some groups terminate immediately they achieve their required assignment and earn a award. This is not to say that they do not continue relationships with other group members. But, the defining characteristics of the group established during the forming stage have come to an end and so has the group. For example, using the group communication campaign in Niger state, if the group decides to terminate its existence after attaining the goal of reducing maternal mortality to, let’s say 5%, then, it may decide to terminate operation.

Group roles
People participate differently in a group so; group communication is the focus on the roles that is played in groups. Knowing the various roles played in groups can help in understanding how to interact with various group members. Twenty five commonly played roles in groups exists, according to Sheats & Benne (1948) and it is further divided into three types—group task roles, group building and maintenance roles, and individual roles. In later research, Ketrow (1991) uses only two categories of group roles—task and social/emotional roles, while Jensen and Chilberg (1991) describe thirty-four roles in groups.

For the purpose of this study, Sheats & Benne (1948) and Ketrow (1991), group roles are categorized into four: task, social-emotional, procedural, and individual. Task roles are those that help or hinder a group’s ability to accomplish its goals. Social-emotional roles are those that focus on building and maintaining relationships among individuals in a group. The focus is on how people feel about being in the group. Procedural roles are concerned with how the group accomplishes its task.
People occupying these roles are interested in following directions, proper procedure, and going through appropriate channels when making decisions or initiating policy. The final category, individual roles, includes any role ‘waves off’ from group goals and emphasizes personal goals” (Jensen & Chilberg, 1991). When people come to a group to promote their individual agenda above the group’s, they do not communicate in ways that are beneficial to the group. It is important for group members to understand what kinds of roles they play in groups in order to engage in positive roles and to achieve their objectives.

Maternal mortality
World Health Organisation (2010) revealed that the annual rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. This will require an annual decline of 5.5%. The 34% decline since 1990 translates into an average annual decline of just 2.3%. Hence, 100 still die a day and more needs to be done to achieve sets targets. According to Umar (2012), the chairman of the National Population Commission (NPC) Mr. Eze Festus stated that maternal morbidity and mortality rate are most commonly associated with high risk pregnancies and births and these includes too early pregnancies and birth by mothers under 18 years, too many or more than four previous births and too late pregnancies after the age of 35 years.

The number of women dying due to complications during pregnancy and childbirth has decreased by 34% from an estimated 546 000 in 1990 to 358 000 in 2008, according to a new report, Trends in maternal mortality, released by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the World Bank. The progress is notable, but the annual rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. This will require an annual decline of 5.5%. The 34% decline since 1990 translates into an average annual decline of just 2.3% (WHO, 2010).

The new estimate shows that it is possible to prevent many more women from dying. Countries need to invest in their health systems and in the quality of care. “Every birth should be safe and every pregnancy wanted,” says Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, the Executive Director of UNFPA. “The lack of maternal health care violates women’s rights to life, health, equality, and non-discrimination. MDG5 can be achieved,” she adds, “but we urgently need to address the shortage of health workers and step up funding for reproductive health services.” (WHO, 2010)

UN agencies, donors and other partners have increasingly coordinated their assistance to countries. WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank are focusing on the countries with the greatest burden and help governments to develop and align their national health plans in order to accelerate progress in maternal and newborn health. “Maternal deaths are majorly caused by poverty. The costs of childbirth can quickly exhaust a family’s income, bringing with it even more financial hardship,” says Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, Vice President for Human Development at the World Bank. “Given the weak state of health systems in many countries, we must work closely with governments, aid donors and agencies, and other partners to strengthen these systems so that women gain significantly better access to quality family planning and other reproductive health services, skilled midwives at their births, emergency obstetric care, and postnatal care for mothers and newborns.” “We still need to do more to strengthen national data collection systems,” says Dr Margaret Chan, the Director-General of WHO. “It is vital to support the development of complete and accurate civil registration systems that include births, deaths and causes of death. Every maternal death needs to be counted,” she adds.

The UN maternal mortality estimates are developed in close collaboration with an international expert group and use all available country data on maternal mortality, as well as improved methods of estimation. The intensive country consultation carried out as part of the development of these estimates has been instrumental in identifying increased data collection efforts in recent years including the special systems to capture data on maternal deaths (WHO, 2012).

Pregnant women still die from four major causes: severe bleeding after childbirth, infections (such as Obstetric fistula), hypertensive disorders, and unsafe abortion. Every day, about 1000 women died due to these complications in 2008. Out of the 1000, 570 lived in sub-Saharan Africa, 300 in South Asia and five in high-income countries. The risk of a woman in a developing country dying from a pregnancy-related cause during her lifetime is about 36 times higher compared to a woman living in a developed country. “To achieve our global goal of improving maternal health and to save women’s lives we need to do more to reach those who are most at risk,” says Anthony Lake, Executive Director of UNICEF. “That means reaching women in rural areas and poorer households, women from ethnic minorities and indigenous groups, and women living with HIV and in conflict zones.” (WHO, 2010)

Theoretical Framework
The social judgement theory was used to explain this study. Social Judgement Theory was propounded by Muzafer Sherif and Carl Hovland in 1961. It is a communication theory that explains when a persuasive communication message is most likely to result in attitude change. The theory specifies the condition under which this change takes place and predicts the direction and extent of the attitude change. This theory is also known as Latitude of Acceptance and Rejection (Jonge, 2012).

Persuasion is a process by which people use messages to influence others. While persuasion typically uses information, the emphasis in a persuasive message is on influencing the receiver (rather than merely providing information and letting the receiver make up his/her own mind). Persuasion attempts to change minds or get people to act. According to Sherif (1961), the essence of this theory is to explain how attitudes (the stands the individual upholds and cherishes about objects, issues, persons, groups, or institutions) may change in the communication process. He added that the attitude change will be less likely to occur if the gap between an attitude a person already has and the attitude advised by the message is big.
Using this theory to explain this study, messages related to the need for women to visit health centers for obstetric care are communicated by the midwives (and nurses) to the women in group format or by a friend. Therefore, attitude change will occur if the woman (the message is being communicated to by midwives and nurses) accepts the message that concerns her maternal health.
The theory holds that any person hearing a message will position it on an attitude scales based on his/her personal judgment. Furthermore, Sheriff (1961) composed three different latitudes known as:

1. Latitude of Acceptance. This consists of opinions, beliefs and stands that are perceived as acceptable. In other words, it is the range of positions a person is ready to accept or agree the content of the message. In this latitude, change occurs. For example, messages that fall within this latitude can induce an attitude change in a pregnant woman to visit health centers for constant check up either for antenatal and postnatal care or to abide by the rules outlined by the midwife, nurse or a friend.

2. Latitude of Non-Commitment. It contains the range of ideas and opinions which is neutral or the person feels undecided or indifferent to the individual’s mindset. For example, messages that fall within this latitude can position the woman at the state of neutrality. That is, the woman may or may not accept the messages on the dos and don’ts during pregnancy being presented by the midwife, nurse or a friend-positioning her on a neutral state.

3. Latitude of Rejection. This is the area where an individual finds all ideas, beliefs, stands and opinions objectionable or unacceptable. The greater the rejection latitude, the more uninvolved the individual is in the issue and thus will be harder to persuade. Due to the contrast effect, idea present in this area tends to be perceived as more hostile then they really are. In this latitude, attitude change is therefore unlikely. Some women of Niger state, for example, may not accept the messages as to regards the needs to visit the hospital for antenatal and postnatal checkup or to abide by the outlined rules communicated by the sender (who is either the midwife, nurse or a friend whose attitude may have fallen within the latitude of acceptance) no matter how hard the sender tries to persuade the receiver.
O’Keefe (1990) affirms that only understanding the person’s latitudes of acceptance, rejection and non-commitment will permit one to understand the individual’s reactions to persuasive messages on the issue.

Key informant interviews method was used for this study. Key Informant Interviews, according to Johanna (2013) are interviews conducted with key individuals within the community, schools, etc. Key Informant Interviews provide a researcher with detailed, qualitative information about impressions, experiences and opinions. In the course of this study, the researcher interviewed four stakeholders-one midwife, a nurse, a pregnant woman and a nursing mother. The interviews were conducted at Comprehensive Primary Health Centre at Paikoro local government area of Niger State.
This Primary Health Center is the only health center covering the whole wards and the population of attendants was ranging from 15-20 women within the 7days this research was conducted. This local government was chosen based on balloting. The questions were posed to them at different occasions and each reacted in her own way. Since this study concerns women, the researcher deemed it necessary to interview women on the issue. The questions were drawn from the research questions, as posed by the researcher earlier in this study.

In addition, participatory observation was used by the researcher. Participatory observation, according to Macionis & Plummer (2005), refers to a form of research methodology in which the researcher takes on a role in the social situation under observation. The social researcher immerses herself in the social setting under study, getting to know key actors in that location in a role which is either covert (the social researcher participating fully without informing members of the social group of the reasons for her presence mainly in secret) or overt (the researcher being open about the reason for her presence in
the field of study since the researcher is given permission by the group to conduct her research).
The aim is to experience events in the manner in which the subjects under study also experience these events.
Macionis & Plummer (2005) added that researchers who employ participant observation as a research tool aim to discover the nature of social reality by understanding the actor’s perception, understanding and interpretation of that social world. Whilst observing and experiencing as a participant, the researcher must retain a level of objectivity in order to understand, analyse and explain the social world under study. In carrying out this research, both the covert and the overt type were used. That is, the researcher sat amongst the women as a covert participant observer after informing the management the purpose of the research. The essence of using this methodology was to detect some information that the respondents were shy to talk about or may not want to divulge at all.

A skilled health worker (doctor, nurse or mid-wife) at delivery is critical to reducing maternal deaths (Okeibunor, Onyeneho & Okonofua 2010). Using group communication campaign as a tool against maternal mortality in Niger state, in fulfilling the goals of MDG5, midwives were assigned to various primary health cares, particularly in rural communities to assist women with obstetric aimed at reducing maternal and child mortality. Midwives assigned to these rural areas educate the women on the need to visit the health centers for checkup so as to avoid complications during and after delivery. A midwife was observed by the researcher addressing them in English while a nurse stood beside her, interpreting in Gwari and Hausa language. Maternal health issues were discussed and educated by the midwife on duty. Issues like; what to eat, what to wear, exercise to embark on and how frequent they should visit the health center for antenatal and postnatal care were critically discussed.

Another topic raised (in concise sentences) by the midwife (named Vivian) that made the women to observe a total silence and a display of self pity was ‘Obstetric Fistula’. The midwife read from a sheet of paper kept on the table. The researcher quotes:
Obstetric fistula is one of the major causes of death among pregnant women. Obstetric fistula is a hole in the birth canal caused by obstructed labour. Every year, between 50 000 to 100 000 women worldwide develop obstetric fistula. Women who experience this condition suffer constant urinary consistence which often leads to social isolation, skin infections, kidney disorders and even death if untreated.
But it can be prevented by: delaying the age of your first pregnancy; avoid using traditional methods in delivery and always come for check up so that we can dictate it on time.

There are other causes like; bleeding after childbirth, infections, unsafe abortion and hypertensive disorder. If you don’t want to experience all these things I mentioned, try to come for check up when you are pregnant and after delivery. Avoid delivering at home because if complications occur, we may not be there to assist you which can lead to your death. Also try to inform others whom you know have never visited the hospital to also come for check up so as not to experience these things.
While the midwife educated them, the women were attentive. They asked questions relating to the topics discussed, which the midwife answered. During the course of the study, the researcher also asked questions (as a participant observer) which was answered by the midwife.

Aside the participatory observation, interviews were conducted. A nurse, the midwife and two women were interviewed.
How do you think group communication have been used as a campaign against maternal mortality in your community?

Sarah spoke:
We try to gather them in one group here in the health center. We talk to them by teaching them what they should know and what they should do including the need to come here for checkup. We also remind them to inform their friends and loved ones who have not visited here to come as well. On our own part, we the nurses, we organise health talk for them on daily basis either by us or the midwives posted to us.
How effective is this campaign used in creating awareness among the uninformed women?
Women are responding to this campaign, but not much. We try to inform the women on attendance to inform and invite their friends and relations, including their neighbours. On market days, we don’t hold this meeting because we don’t want to be the cause of any woman not fending for her family.
How do you think group communication have been used as a campaign against maternal mortality in your community?

Vivian spoke:
Just like you saw, they are really responding. We started with one person who came the next day with three women and subsequently. Before you know it, this place became a group of over ten women both pregnant and nursing mothers.
How effective is this campaign used in creating awareness among the uninformed women?
With time, I hope that women within this community will respond rapidly to this intervention. We usually have inconsistent number of attendance either on the increasing side or on the decreasing side. This is the central and only primary health care in this local government and some women live very far from this place so it might not really be easy for them to come over here.

Woman A
How do you think group communication have been used as a campaign against maternal mortality in your community?
Mariam, a pregnant mother of one spoke:
We started with small number of people. We sit together and share our problems and fears. I learn from a problem shared by a colleague and once the midwife answers the question, I learn from it so I might attend this meeting more than two weeks without asking any question because my problems had been solved with frequent questions and answers that may concern me. Before now, I never attended this even for once. I had my first child at home and it wasn’t easy and I am hoping to have my second child soon. But now, I see the benefit and I have invited more than five women here…
How effective is this campaign used in creating awareness among the uninformed women?
Creating awareness is another thing and the response of women is entirely another thing. I don’t see the effectiveness of this campaign to the fullest because for those that don’t have the money, not every woman can afford to trek the distance and for those that have little, they cannot afford to waste it on transport. This place is too far to organise this type of campaign.

Woman B
How do you think group communication have been used as a campaign against maternal mortality in your community?

Grace, a nursing mother spoke:
Through this campaign, the risk involved in pregnancy is reduced and women try to gather here every day for this health talk.
How effective is this campaign used in creating awareness among the uninformed women?
In fact, I was invited and I invited two other women. I was invited when I was pregnant and I had my baby here. To some extent, it is effective because some women are becoming aware by the day. But you know Ninja…well. This health clinic is far from where some women reside so this campaign may not really be effective to them because they are not carried along.

From the participatory observation and the interviews gathered, it was discovered that:
1. the only group communication campaign available is the gathering done by women in the central primary health center (which is far from the main town) and addressed by midwives and nurses on shift,
2. the attendance record fluctuates on daily basis, that is, high attendance in a day and low attendance on the next day,
3. though the campaign was aimed at creating awareness for the women to visit the health centers for proper care before, during and after delivery, the turn up of women were low in most cases-these group of women fall under the latitude of rejection as stipulated by the theory,
4. the campaign seems strenuous on the part of the midwife particularly when she has to speak and wait for her statement to be interpreted by the nurse and vice versa,
5. the women in attendance showed interest, attention, acceptance and some level of conviction during the discussion exercise-these group of women fall under the latitude of acceptance,
6. to some extent, group communication campaign is not effective for the fight against maternal mortality. Since the gathering is done in the central primary health center situated miles away from the main town and villages, not all women are reached out-these group of women fall under the latitude of non commitment.

Below are the recommendations of this study:
1. Dr Margaret Chan, the Director-General of WHO stated; “It is vital to support the development of complete and accurate civil registration systems that include births, deaths and causes of death. Every maternal death needs to be counted,” hence, there is need for accurate and daily statistical documentation of data on maternal mortality in Nigeria.
2. Other communication campaigns (like midwives visiting homes for interpersonal contact, contacting the women on phones and posting of adequate midwives to other health centers and not necessarily the primary health care within the community) should be put to place in communities to enable those women (pregnant and nursing) who are far from the primary health center to acquire the basic attention, assistance and information needed for their health.
3. Much importance should be placed by health personnel on the use of group communication in curbing maternal mortality because it can be seen as an easy way of dialoguing with more than one person at a time.

Group communication approach to maternal mortality can assist the midwife to meet the needs of more than two women at the same time. In a group communication, women are able to learn from other women’s experience through discussions, questions and answers as well as contributions shared from experience. To some extent, group communication may be disadvantageous because it may give little or no room for privacy since women are gathered in group. Incorrect ideas maybe shared amongst themselves in a group and the ideas may cause havoc to some women because they feel shy to raise their fears and desperation openly. With the efforts of international organisations, there is still more work to be done if the goal of MDG5 is to be achieved. More serious campaigns need to be carried out and various communication approaches needs to be put in place to curb this menace.

Bowers, J. W. & Ochs, D. J. (1971). The Rhetoric of Agitation and Control. New York: RandomHouse Press.

Brilhart, J. K., & Galanes, G. J. (1998). Effective group discussion (9th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.

Chilberg, A. D. & Jensen, J. C. (1991). Small group communication: Theory and application.Belmont: Wadsworth.

Collins, E. (2011:6). Developing Effective Communication in Health and Social Care. Retrieved on January 23, 2013 from…/hscbtecnationalch01.p… – United Kingdom

Cragan, J. F., & Wright, D. W. (1999). Communication in small groups: Theory, process, skills (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Umar, S. (2012). Nigeria’s Maternal Mortality Ratio, 545 per 100,000 Births. Online Leadership Newspaper. Retrieved on February 18, 2013 from tio_545_100000_births_npc_boss.html

Fisher, B. A. (1970). Decision emergence: Phases in group decision-making. Speech Monographs, 37, 53-66.

Harris, T. E., & Sherblom, J. C. (2008). Small group and team communication (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Heider, J. (1997). The Tao of leadership. Atlanta: Humanics New Age.

Johanna, R. (2013). Key Informant Interviews. World Heart Federation. Retrieved on January 20, 2013 from move-toolkit/3-evaluation/conducting-the-evaluation/key-informant-interviews/

Jonge, J. (2012).Cognitive Balance Theory. Retrieved on October 20, 2012 from

Ketrow, S.M. (1991). Communication role specializations and perceptions of leadership. Small Group Research, 21 (2), 234-54.

Larson, C. E., & LaFasto, F. (1989). Teamwork: What must go right/what can go wrong. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. New York: Harper.

Lumsden, G., & Lumsden, D. (1997). Communicating in groups and teams: Sharing leadership. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Macionis, J.J & Plummer, K. (2005). Sociological: A Global Introduction. Third Edition. Prentice Hall. United Kingdom

National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) 2009. Briefing Manual on The MDG-DRG Funded Midwives Service Scheme

O’Keefe, D. J. (1990). Persuasion: theory & research. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Okeibunor, J. C, Onyeneho, N. J & Okonofua, F. E (2010). Policy and Programs for Reducing Maternal Mortality in Enugu State, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 14(3): 19.

Starhawk. (1987). Truth or dare: Encounters with power authority, and mystery. San Francisco: Harper.

Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental sequences in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384-399.

World Health Organisation (2010) Fact File. Retrieved on January 20, 2013 from

World Health Organisation (2010). News release. Retrieved on January 15, 2013 from

World Health Organisation (2012). Maternal Mortality. Fact Sheet. Retrieved on January 20, 2013 from

Wilson, G. L. (2002:14). Groups in context: Leadership and participation in small groups (6th ed.) Boston: McGraw Hill.

Wood, J. T. (2003:274). Communication in our lives (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Sheats, K. & Benne, P. (1948). Functional roles of group members.” Journal of Social Issues, 4, 41-49.

Sherif, M., & Hovland, C. I. (1961). Social judgment: Assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


Have you heard the term, ‘bloody civilian?’ this is how men in uniform in many parts of the world often refer to civilians. Perhaps there may be a substitute term where you come from, but reference in meaning remains the same.  I have often wondered why civilians are perceived in this derogatory way by arm bearing men; it does not matter whether these armed men are in a gang of militia, in a country’s security service, a bunch of rebels or the police.  As long as the bear arms, civilians often bear the brunt of their anger or quest for dominance.  In many wars around the world, civilians fall into the highest figures in terms of casualty rates even though they bear no arms against any one. Reason for this, is because of how civilians are perceived by these violent men.  Imagine murdered civilians been described as collateral damage or been counted in estimates and numbers with no trace of human essence in them.  Imagine the figure of lost civilians lives in Syria, Congo, and in many troubled spots around the world and the murders and extra judicial killings that occur in many ‘peaceful countries’ of the world, perpetuated by police and blood thirsty men.

Shouldn’t members of the security forces be subject to civil authorities? Are they not supposed to safe guard the lives they now exterminate with impunity?  Why were the armed forces and other paramilitary organizations created? Is it to protect and serve the people or serve the leadership of a country in which they were created? I have often wondered why those, whom we have placed arms in their hands through the hard earned money we pay for taxes and through our collective resources, turn around and use the same arms to dominate and kill us at will.

Why are civilian lives not worth much? A dictator goes power mad, he turns against his people; a gang of rebels and men of fortunate thirst for a share of power and they target civilians as they shoot their way to the capital; a bunch of religious fundamentals go further extreme and they blow their way to heaven through the lives of civilians; police becomes lords and they lord over poor civilians. To be a civilian, what a cruel fate!

Should every man be armed and cease to be a civilian? Then he can protect his life and defend his dreams? For no man is killed that easily when he can protect himself.  If all become active men of a force, who then shall grow food, build the economy or pay taxes for guns and other weapons? The point here is that civilians’ lives are also important and should be respected.

What has become of human Rights and the laws that guide the use of arms? Why do military and Para-military authorities often seek to protect their own by covering up for their own’s evil crimes? A civilian is dragged to a police station, tortured and then murder and the authorities tell us the victim committed suicide in his cell; after that, justice is never served and the murderer continues to walk freely and kills more.

Many countries talk gladly of how disciplined their forces are and how greatly Geneva law crazy their forces are? But under the cover of no prying eyes, one would be shocked at what evils these forces could do against civilians. I pray that the day will come when civilian lives will matter, when their rights will be respected and when justice will never be delayed or denied. I pray a day will come when men in uniform will recognize that that which they swear to defend and protect is not just a mere geographical territory but the lives that dwell in such a territory.